Published Research


For opportunities to collaborate on research with us please connect with us at equal@bedrocan.ca

Administration Forms

Cannabinoids act differently when they are administered into the body in different ways, such as ingesting or inhaling. We undertake research to understand these differences, and share our findings with the research community. In addition to the studies below, our team also conducted the research that allowed the Volcano Medic® Vaporizer (storz- bickel.com) to become an approved medical device in Canada, in 2008.

Published Research
  1. Hazekamp. Evaluation of a Vaporizing Device (Volcano) for the Pulmonary Administration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006; 95(6): 1308-1317.
  2. Hazekamp. Cannabis tea revisited: A systematic evaluation of the cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2007; 113, 85–90.
  3. Zuurman, Hazekamp. Effect of intrapulmonary tetrahydrocannabinol administration in humans. J Psychopharmacol. 2008; 22(7): 707-716.
  4. Romano, L. and Hazekamp, A. Cannabis Oil: chemical evaluation of an upcoming cannabis-based medicine. Cannabinoids 2013; 1(1): 1-11.
  5. Hazekamp, Ware, Muller-Vahl, Abrams, Grotenhermen. The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids–an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms. J Psychoactive Drugs 2013; 45(3): 199-210.
  6. Nadia Solowij, Samantha J Broyd, Hendrika H van Hell and Arno Hazekamp. A protocol for the delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) and combined CBD and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by vaporisation. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2014, 15:58.

Social Research

Cannabis is used by many thousands of people to help manage symptoms of a health condition. In our effort to bridge the gap between the laboratory and the realities of patient use, we conduct behavioral studies to collect data on dosing, indications, administration forms, cannabis varieties, and more.

Published Research
  1. Hazekamp. An evaluation of the quality of medicinal grade cannabis in the Netherlands. Cannabinoids. 2006; 1(1):1-9.
  2. Gieringer, Hazekamp. How accurate is potency testing? O’Shaughnessy’s. Autumn 2011: 17.
  3. Hazekamp, Ware, Muller-Vahl, Abrams, Grotenhermen. The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids–an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms. J Psychoactive Drugs 2013; 45(3): 199-210.
  4. Hazekamp, Heerdink. The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in The Netherlands. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 69(8):1575-80.

Cannabis chemistry and strain research

We support third-party academic research studies using our cannabis varieties, and also conduct our own. Because our strains are research-grade and fully standardized, results can be compared across multiple studies that use the same varieties. Some published studies involving our strains include:

Published Research
  1. Hazekamp et al. Preparative isolation of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa by centrifugal partition chromatography. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 2004; 27(15): 2421-2439.
  2. Hazekamp. Quantitative Analysis of Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa Using 1H-NMR. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 52(6): 718-721.
  3. Hazekamp. Chromatographic and spectroscopic data of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 2005; 28: 2361- 2382.
  4. Hazekamp. Structure elucidation of the tetrahydrocannabinol complex with randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006; 29: 340-347.
  5. Bastola, Hazekamp. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of cannabinolic acid. Planta Medica 2007; 73: 1-3.
  6. Fischedick, Hazekamp. A Qualitative and Quantitative HPTLC Densitometry Method for the Analysis of Cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. Phytochem. Anal. 2009; 20: 421– 426.
  7. Fischedick, Hazekamp. Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., Cannabinoids and Terpenoids for Chemotaxonomic and Drug Standardizatio Purposes. Phytochemistry 2010; 71(17-18): 2058-2073.
  8. Fischedick. Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Binding Activity and Quantitative Analysis of Cannabis sativa L. Smoke and Vapor. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2010; 58(2): 201-207.
  9. Hazekamp, Fischedick. Cannabis – From Cultivar to Chemovar. Drug Testing and Analysis 2012; 4: 660-667.
  10. Erkelens, Hazekamp. That which we call Indica, by any other name would smell as sweet. An essay on the history of the term Indica and the taxonomical conflict between the monotypic and polytypic views of Cannabis. Cannabinoids 2014; 9(1): 9-15.

Administration forms and pharmacodynamics

Additional studies on various topics ranging from the contents of cannabis tea to cannabis and creativity.

Published Research
  1. Hazekamp. Evaluation of a Vaporizing Device (Volcano1) for the Pulmonary Administration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. J. Pharm. Sci. 2006; 95(6): 1308-1317.
  2. Pomahacova. Cannabis smoke condensate III: The cannabinoid content of vaporised Cannabis sativa. Inhalation Toxicology 2007; 21(13): 1108–1112.
  3. Hazekamp. Cannabis tea revisited: A systematic evaluation of the cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2007; 113: 85–90.
  4. Fischedick. Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Binding Activity and Quantitative Analysis of Cannabis sativa L. Smoke and Vapor. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2010; 58(2): 201-207.
  5. Brenneisen. Plasma and urine profiles of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol after cannabis smoking by male volunteers to estimate recent consumption by athletes. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2010; 396(7): 2493-2502
  6. Kowal, Hazekamp. Modulation of cognitive and emotional processing by cannabidiol: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 2013; 7: 147.
  7. Kowal, Hazekamp et al. Cannabis and creativity: highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2015 Mar;232(6):1123-34.

Reviews and book chapters

Arno Hazekamp, Bedrocan BV’s Head of Research and Education has authored chapters in several well-known cannabis resources.

Published Research
  1. Hazekamp, Grotenhermen. Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids 2005-2009. Cannabinoids 2010; 5: 1-21.
  2. Hazekamp et al. Chemistry of cannabis. In: Comprehensive Natural Products II Chemistry and Biology; Mander L, Lui HW, Eds. Elsevier, Oxford 2010; volume 3: 1033– 1084.
  3. Hazekamp, Pappas. Self-Medication with Cannabis. In: Handbook of cannabis. Pertwee R, Ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014; chapter 17.
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